ultimate range [of particular Government fees] havingin the quick power of your Connection, will generally be produced from the officials, and you can depending on the legislation, appointed from the several Says. . .the brand new officers of Claims might be outfitted to the correspondent power of your Commitment.
The Federalist No. 45, at 292 (James Madison) (Clinton Rossiter ed., 1961). The framers also seem to have acted upon this understanding. The first Judiciary Act, enacted by the first Congress, required state magistrates and justices of the peace to arrest and detain any criminal offender under the laws of the United states. 1 Stat. § 33. This statute, in immaterially modified form, remains in effect. 18 U.S.C. § 3041. At least two courts have interpreted this statute to authorize state and local law enforcement officers to arrest an individual who violates federal law. Get a hold of United states v. Bowdach, 561 F.2d 1160 (5th Cir. 1977); Whitlock v. Boyer, 77 Ariz. 334, 271 P.2d 484 (1954).
As discussed below, the delegation to private persons or non-federal government officials of federal-law authority, sometimes incorrectly analyzed as raising Appointments Clause questions, can raise genuine questions under other constitutional doctrines, such as the non-delegation doctrine and general separation of powers principles. Continue reading „Actually it is rather probable one various other days,“